4-Poster Study Map
The primary objective on Shelter Island was to evaluate the effect of 4-Poster devices on tick numbers, deer density, deer behavior, and non-target wildlife. The village of North Haven was used as a “control site” to compare tick numbers, deer density, and deer behavior in the absence of 4-Posters. On Shelter Island, we examined deer use of 4-Poster devices and the impact device placement had on deer-vehicle collisions, as well as on the surrounding vegetation. In addition, we estimated both deer and tick densities and evaluated the ability of 4-Poster technology to reduce tick abundance. Devices were also being deployed on western Fire Island in an attempt to reduce tick numbers there as well.
Shelter Island and North Haven are located on the eastern end of Long Island, NY.
Shelter Island was divided into two study areas, Area A (South) is outlined in blue, and Area B (North) in green. The control site outlined in yellow is all of North Haven.
Overview of Technical Concerns
This study was conducted to address several issues to help inform a decision on Tickicide registration and whether to allow use of the 4-Poster Device in New York State. The NYS Department of Environmental Conservation and NYS Department of Health had three main concerns:
I. Human and wildlife-associated risks due to changes in deer movement and behavior resulting from deployment of 4-Posters, including:
II. Possible increased human exposure to permethrin via handling and consuming treated deer.
III. Efficacy of the 4-Poster system in controlling tick densities in human inhabited and visited areas.